Check the latest papers from the RI-URBANS team

High-Precision Microscale Particulate Matter Prediction in Diverse Environments Using a Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network and Street View Imagery

Liu X et al., 2024

Oxidative potential apportionment of atmospheric PM1: a new approach combining high-sensitive online analysers for chemical composition and offline OP measurement technique

Camman et al., 2024

New particle formation event detection with convolutional neural networks

Zhang et al., 2024

Recommendations for reporting equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations based on long-term pan-European in-situ observations

Savadkoohi M et al., 2024

Constructing transferable and interpretable machine learning models for black carbon concentrations

 Lun Fung et al., 2024

Variability of ambient air ammonia in urban Europe (Finland, France, Italy, Spain, and the UK)

Liu et al., 2024

Uncertainties in source allocation of carbonaceous aerosols in a Mediterranean region

Navarro-Barboza et al., 2024

Improved counting statistics of an ultrafine differential mobility particle size spectrometer system

Stolzenburget al., 2023

Prediction of the Concentration and Source Contributions of PM2.5 and Gas-Phase Pollutants in an Urban Area with the SmartAQ Forecasting System

Siouti et al., 2023

A 1-year aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) source analysis of organic aerosol particle contributions from anthropogenic sources after long-range transport at the TROPOS research station Melpitz

Atabakhsh et al., 2023

Simultaneous Use of Ground-Based and Satellite Observation to Evaluate Atmospheric Air Pollution over Amman, Jordan

Panahifar et al., 2023

On dissipation time scales of the basic second-order moments: the effect on the Energy and Flux-Budget (EFB) turbulence closure for stably stratified turbulence

Kadantsev et al., 2023

Characterizing the sources of ambient PM10 organic aerosol in urban and rural Catalonia, Spain

In t Veld et al., 2023

Evaluation of air quality changes in a Chinese megacity over a 15-year period (2006–2021) using PM2.5 receptor modelling

Canals-Angerri et al., 2024

Synergic use of in-situ and remote sensing techniques for comprehensive characterization of aerosol optical and microphysical properties

Davulienė et al., 2024

Identification of volatile organic compounds and their sources driving ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation in NE Spain

in ‘t Veld et al., 2024

Ambient air particulate total lung deposited surface area (LDSA) levels in urban Europe

Liu et al., 2023

Aerosol optical depth climatology from the high-resolution MAIAC product over Europe: differences between major European cities and their surrounding environments

Di Antonio et al., 2023

Opportunistic mobile air quality mapping using sensors on postal service vehicles: from point clouds to actionable insights

Hofman et al., 2023

Simulation of the influence of residential biomass burning on air quality in an urban area

Siouti et al., 2023

Source apportionment of oxidative potential depends on the choice of the assay: insights into 5 protocols comparison and implications for mitigation measures

Dominutti et al., 2023

The variability of mass concentrations and source apportionment analysis of equivalent black carbon across urban Europe

Savadkoohi et al., 2023

Effect of radiation interaction and aerosol processes on ventilation and aerosol concentrations in a real urban neighbourhood in Helsinki

Strömberg et al., 2023

Towards a better understanding of fine PM sources: Online and offline datasets combination in a single PMF

Via et al., 2023

Development and evaluation of an improved offline aerosol mass spectrometry technique

Vasilakopoulou et al., 2023

Infrequent new particle formation in a coastal Mediterranean city during the summer

Aktypis et al., 2023

Influence of anthropogenic emissions on the composition of highly oxygenated organic molecules in Helsinki: a street canyon and urban background station comparison

Okuljar et al., 2023

Mobile measurements of black carbon: Comparison of normal traffic with reduced traffic conditions during COVID-19 lock-down

Van Poppel et al., 2023

Atmospheric boundary layer height from ground-based remote sensing: a review of capabilities and limitations

Kotthaus et al., 2023

Discovering oxidative potential (OP) drivers of atmospheric PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 simultaneously in North-Eastern Spain

in ‘t Veld et al., 2023

Phenomenology of ultrafine particle concentrations and size distribution across urban Europe

Trechera et al., 2023

Determinants of spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations in a street canyon network measured using a mobile laboratory and a drone

Järvi et al., 2023

Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on particulate matter oxidative potential at urban background versus traffic sites

S. Borlaza et al., 2023

Enviro-HIRLAM model estimates of elevated black carbon pollution over Ukraine resulted from forest fires

Savenets et al., 2022

Effects of emission sources on the particle number size distribution of ambient air in the residential area

Harni et al., 2022

Real-Time Source Apportionment of Organic Aerosols in Three European Cities

Chen et al., 2022

Development and Application of the SmartAQ High-Resolution Air Quality and Source Apportionment Forecasting System for European Urban Areas

Siouti et al., 2022

Measurement report: A multi-year study on the impacts of Chinese New Year celebrations on air quality in Beijing, China

Foreback et al., 2022

European aerosol phenomenology − 8: Harmonised source apportionment of organic aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS datasets

Chen et al., 2022

Improving the current air quality index with new particulate indicators using a robust statistical approach

Fung et al., 2022

Influence of emission size distribution and nucleation on number concentrations over Greater Paris

Sartelet et al., 2022

2011–2020 trends of urban and regional ammonia in and around Barcelona, NE Spain

Reche et al., 2022

Long-term air quality trends of regulated pollutants in Helsinki metropolitan area in 1994-2019 and implications to air quality index

Sillanpää et al., 2022

Non-linear models for black carbon exposure modelling using air pollution datasets

Rovira et al., 2022

Opinion: Insights into updating Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC

Kuula et al., 2022

Vehicular traffic in urban areas: Health burden and influence of sustainable urban planning and mobility

Reche et al., 2022

Open data

Download and explore our databases

The RI-URBANS project is collecting data from several sources, covering observational data of a range of different compounds, e.g. nanoparticles and atmospheric particulate matter, their sizes, constituents, and gaseous precursors at the ground and height profiles.

WP1 (Novel air quality metrics and advanced source apportionment service tools for particulate matter and nanoparticle) compiles datasets from existing AQ sites (see D1 (D.1.1)).

According to RI-URBANS DMP, datasets were compiled from EBAS database when available. These datasets were submitted to EBAS by the data owners under other programmes like EMEP, ACTRIS and GUAN.

Further, a major compilation of datasets, from existing AQ supersites, not available at EBAS, was conducted in WP1. These data have been (or are being) submitted centrally to EBAS by RI-URBANS partners and not by the data owners unless they already have been submitted to other programmes.

All datasets compiled in WP1, including those not yet submitted to EBAS, have been made available in the RI URBANS Intranet (RI-URBANS D1 (D.1.1) DATASETS) and some in secondary data repositories as an intermediate step before finally uploading them to EBAS. These datasets may also include variables i.e., eBC mass concentration that not yet are implemented in the regular reporting to EBAS but will be a level 3 product derived from the absorption measurements.

Detailed information of methods and sampling durations are found in the metadata associated with the data files.

Table 1 – quality-controlled data sets

The total number of sites given in parentheses includes those relevant sites that have been reported to other frameworks and those sites expected to be in EBAS soon. It does not include NRT data.

Note that the number of sites and datasets is continuously changing, current information is representative for end of May 2024.


The first time you follow the link to the EBAS page, a general disclaimer will appear. Please accept it and follow the link again to visit the pollutant info.

VariableInstruments#NRT sites#sites# data sets (level 2)Link to dataset (level 2)
Aerosol absorption coefficient
(also used for estimating eBC)
Filter absorption photometers (MAAP, AE33, AE31)8.040.0188.0EBAS
particle number size distribution (PNSD)DMPS, SMPS4.016.01923.0EBAS
VOC data (111 number of different gas components)Adsorption, tube, PTR-MS, online-GC, steel canister-19.01002.0EBAS
NH3Online absorption, CRDS, online IC, chemiluminescence, passive sampler-50.054.0EBAS
Aerosol chemical composition (NH4, SO4, NO3, organic mass)Aersol mass spectrometer (ACSM)
NO, NO2CAPS, chemiluminescence-1.08.0EBAS
UV- fluorescence
Elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC)High volume sampler-1.018.0EBAS
Non-refractory PM speciationACSM22.022.0-ZENODO

UFP (Ultrafine Particles) PNSD (Particle Number Size Distribution)

Particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number size distribution (PNSD) data have been collected from open databases (mainly from ACTRIS Data Centre-EBAS), or directly provided by Air Quality Monitoring Networks and other research stations.

This project has a total of twenty-eight European sites providing hourly 2009-2019 (when available) data of UFP-PSD (ultrafine particles-particle size distribution) by air quality monitoring networks and research supersites to RI-URBANS.

Detailed information of methods and sampling durations are found in the metadata associated with the data files. Data has been checked out and harmonized following ACTRIS recommendations. All data are aggregated to hourly resolution.

In files from the Zenodo database, concentrations of the Nucleation mode (N10-25), Aitken mode (N25-100), Accumulation mode (N10-800), N25-800 and PNC (N10-800), all in # cm-3 have been calculated.

Map – RI-URBANS has multiple measurement sites distributed along Europe
  • UB – Urban Background

  • TR – Traffik

  • SUB – Sub-urban Background

  • RB – Regional Background

Table 2 – overview of the ground based UFP PNSD in-situ data sets compiled in the framework of RI-URBANS

Annual quality-controlled dataset of particle number size distribution data (PNSD) available in EBAS (dark green) associated to RI-URBANS, including links with access to of the data. The datasets marked in light green are not available in EBAS yet due to pending issues with missing metadata or similar. Stations marked in blue are not associated to the RI-URBANS framework in EBAS but reported to ACTRIS and/or EMEP. (The numbers indicate the fraction of the yearly data coverage; 1,00 indicates 100% yearly data coverage).

Czech RPragueSuchdolCZ0004BSUB0.740.9610.980.791110.120.92YES
FranceLilleVilleneuve d'AscqFR0027USUB0.350.730.441YES/P
SpainBarcelonaPalau ReialES0019UUB0.850.760.840.821110.1211YES/P
SwedenStockholmHornsgatan 108SE0024UTR0.190.890.960.920.710.630.560.740.68
UKLondonNorth KensingtonGB0021UUB0.880.740.740.910.860.830.850.820.66
UKLondonMarylebone RoadGB0022UTR0.760.720.410.870.830.890.930.590.440.36
UKLondonHonor Oak ParkGB0023UUB0.080.54
StationCitySite20012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020202120222023Link to ebas
FR0027ULilleVilleneuve d'Ascq0000000000000000000010EBAS
ES0019UBarcelonaPalau Reial00000000000000001110.12110EBAS
GB0021ULondonNorth Kensington0.8800.740.740.910.860.830.850.820.66
GB0022ULondonMarylebone Road0.760.720.410.870.830.890.930.590.440.36EBAS
GB0023ULondonHonor Oak Park0.080.54
SE0024UStockholmHornsgatan 1080.190.890.960.920.710.630.560.740.68EBAS

Equivalent Black Carbon (eBC)

Equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations have been collected from open databases (mainly from ACTRIS Data Centre-EBAS), or directly provided by Air Quality Monitoring Networks and other research stations.

This project has a total of 53 European sites (31 European cities, and 14 European countries) providing hourly 2006-2022 data of eBC (when available) by air quality monitoring networks and research supersites to RI-URBANS.

These 50 measurement sites include 23 urban background (UB) sites, 18 traffic (TR) sites, 7 sub-urban background (SUB) sites, and 2 regional background (RB) sites.

Detailed information of methods and sampling durations are found in the metadata associated with the data files.

EBAS Level 2 quality assured/quality checked (QA/QC) data (EBAS,, including physical parameters, is aggregated to hourly averages. EBAS data were processed following the ACTRIS recommendations for the reporting of eBC measurements.

Most datasets were provided directly by partners; they have been received in different types of processing and quality levels. Data has been processed and harmonized following ACTRIS recommendations. These data were averaged hourly (see details in Savadkoohi et al., 2023– DOI:

Datasets directly provided by data originators are being submitted to EBAS by CSIC as level 2. These datasets present absorption coefficients aggregated to hourly averages. eBC mass concentrations can be calculated from the absorption measurements, by using an agreed mass absorption cross section (MAC), and will be made available as a level 3 product in EBAS.

All datasets collected are presented in the open access secondary repository in ZENODO (Savadkoohi, Marjan, & Pandolfi, Marco. (2023). The variability of mass concentrations and source apportionment analysis of equivalent black carbon across urban Europe [Data set]. Zenodo. ( Each dataset contains metadata about the measurement site, instrument, and technical operation details. Absorption measurements and hourly averaged concentrations of eBC, calculated by using the nominal MAC of each instrument are included.

A new set of data is being produced using elemental carbon (EC) concentrations and absorption coefficient based on its availability. This new database will be published to provide the site-specific MAC and corrected eBC concentrations (equivalent EC).

Table 1 – Annual quality-controlled dataset of aerosol absorption coefficients (eBC) available in EBAS and associated to RI-URBANS

Includes links with access to the data.  Stations that are marked in blue are not associated to the RI-URBANS framework in EBAS, while the yellow sites part of the time series is.  (The numbers indicate the fraction of the yearly data coverage; 1,00 indicates 100% yearly data coverage).

StationCitySite2004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019202020212022Link to ebas
ES0019UBarcelonaPalau Reial000000.97111111111110.250EBAS
RO0007RBucharestRADO-Bucharest I00000000000.8411111000EBAS
RO0010RBucharestRADO-Bucharest II00000000000000000.9210EBAS
SE0024UStockholmHornsgatan 10800000000000.2211111000EBAS
SE0025UStockholmTorkel Knutssonsgatan00000000000.2211111000EBAS
FI0050RJuupajoki (Hyytiälä)SMEAR II0011111111111111110EBAS
FR0027ULilleVilleneuve d'Ascq0000000000011EBAS
FI0041UHelsinkiHelsinki (Kallio)0000000000In queue
FI0042UHelsinkiHelsinki (Mannerheimintie)0000000000In queue
FI0039UHelsinkiMäkelänkatu0000000000In queue
FI0043UHelsinkiHelsinki (Töölöntulli)0000000000In queue
FI0044UHelsinkiHelsinki (Kehä I)0000000000In queue
FI0045UHelsinkiHelsinki (Tikkurila)0000000000In queue
FI0046UHelsinkiHelsinki (Leppävaara)0000000000In queue
FI0047UHelsinkiHelsinki (Rekola)0000000000In queue
FI0048UHelsinkiHelsinki (Itä-Hakkila)00000000000000In queue
FI0049UHelsinkiHelsinki (Pirkkola)00000000000000In queue
NL0013UEindhovenEindhoven (Noordbrabantlaan)00000000000000In queue
NL0014UEnschedeEnschede (Winkelhorst)00000000000000In queue
NL0015UGroningenGroningen (Nijensteinheerd)00000000000000In queue
NL0016UHeerlenHeerlen (Jamboreepad)00000000000000In queue
NL0017UNijmegenNijmegen (Graafseweg)00000000000000In queue
NL0018UNijmegenNijmegen (Ruyterstraat)00000000000000In queue
NL0019URotterdamRotterdam RDM00000000000000In queue
NL0020URotterdamRotterdam RZW00000000000000In queue
NL0021URotterdamRotterdam RPW00000000000000In queue
NL0022UVeldhovenVeldhoven (Europalaan)00000000000000In queue
DE0063KDresdenDresden-NordIn queue
DE0064BDresdenDresden-WinckelmannstrasseIn queue

Online chemistry: non-refractory compounds

Online PM chemical composition is measured at certain sites across Europe using a Quadrupole or Time-of-Flight Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q- or ToF-ACSM, Aerodyne Research Inc.). This instrument provides the ambient concentration of the following non-refractory species: Organic aerosol (OA), SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and Cl-. Sources of organic aerosols are identified by applying the positive matrix factorisation (PMF) receptor model to the organic mass spectra. The time resolution varies depending on instrument and location between 10 and 30 minutes. The size fraction can be PM1 or PM2.5.

Datasets are being compiled for period 2017-2022. EBAS datasets are available in level 2 and 1.5 formats for a low number of sites, providing hourly concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organic aerosol. Information on the PM chemical composition and organic sources of a larger number of sites are compiled in the secondary repository and form part of an overview publication on organic sources (Chen et al., 2022). RI-URBANS is compiling additional available data in Europe and plan to upload this data to EBAS following harmonized protocols.

Secondary Repository: Chemical composition measurements from 22 sites using an ACSM instrument:  Chen, Gang. (2022). European Aerosol Phenomenology – 8: Harmonised Source Apportionment of Organic Aerosol using 22 Year-long ACSM/AMS Datasets [Data set]. In Environment International (Version 2nd, Vol. 166, p. 107325). Zenodo.

Cheng et al.

Figure from Cheng et al., 2022 RI-URBAN SITES ARE URBAN SITES; BROWN COLOR

Table 3 – Annual quality-controlled dataset of aerosol composition data (from ACSM) available in EBAS associated to RI-URBANS

Includes links with access to of the data. Stations marked in blue are not associated to the RI-URBANS framework in EBAS, but reported to ACTRIS and/or COLOSSAL. (The numbers indicate the fraction of the yearly data coverage; 1,00 indicates 100% yearly data coverage)

StationCitySite201420152016201720182019202020212022Link to ebas
ES0019UBarcelonaPalau Reial0.620.400.080.25EBAS
IE0010UDublinUniv. College0.330.481EBAS

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

VOCs are precursors of PM, nanoparticles and O3.

VOC measurements in urban environments are scarce. In addition, there is no reference methodology, except for specific compounds, which makes it difficult to compare existing measurements.

Only one VOC dataset was previously available at EBAS. In the framework of RI-URBANS, VOC data from additional 21 sites of different typology were collected for the 2001-2023 period, and are being uploaded (done for 19 sites) to EBAS by IMT-Nord. The measurements have been conducted with different types of instruments mainly by gas chromatography systems. Thus, some are continuous observations, from automatic monitoring such as PTR-MS and online-GC, and others from manual sampling as grab sampler of VOC two times per week steel canister or Adsorption tubes during longer periods.

Table 7 – Annual quality-controlled dataset of VOC data available in EBAS associated to RI-URBANS

Includes links with access to of the data. Stations marked in blue are not associated to the RI-URBANS framework in EBAS. (The numbers indicate the fraction of the yearly data coverage; 1,00 indicates 100% yearly data coverage).

StationCitySite20012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020202120222023Link to ebas
ES0019UBarcelonaPalau Reial000000000000000000000.2410EBAS
FI0010UHelsinkiSMEAR III00000000000.83000000000000EBAS
FR0045ULyonFeyzin stade0000.21111111111111111110.11EBAS
FR0047UStrasbourgStrasbourg Ouest00.481111111111111111110.6600EBAS
GB0022ULondonMarylebone road00000001111111111111110EBAS

Ammonia (NH3)

Urban ammonia (NH3) is precursor of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) a major component of particulate matter.

NH3 measurements in urban environments are very scarce and frequently restricted to short campaigns. In addition, there is no reference methodology which makes it difficult to compare the existing measurements.

NH3 datasets from 22 urban sites have been collected in RI-URBANS and uploaded to EBAS by IMT-Nord. Data for 4 additional sites are under process.

Most measurements have been conducted with passive samplers (weekly samples), but also continuous measurements (e.g. online absorption and online IC) are available.

Averaged 2017-2019 PNCs of the sites

Figure 2.2.: Map with averaged 2017-2019 PNCs of the sites (in # cm^-3 10^3)

Table 6 – Annual dataset of NH3 available in EBAS associated to RI-URBANS

Includes links with access to of the data. The numbers indicate the fraction of the yearly data coverage; 1,00 indicates 100% yearly data coverage.

StationCitySite20042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020202120222023Link to ebas
ES0019UBarcelonaPalau Reial00000.8811111111110.1EBAS
ES0031ULa MarinaLa marina0.43EBAS
ES0032UValenciaBulevard Sud111110.97EBAS
ES0033UMalagaEl Atabal0.6310.98EBAS
ES0034UMalagaAvenida Juan XXIII0.9711111110.96EBAS
ES0035USevillaLa Ranilla0.6311111111110.96EBAS
ES0040UMurcia (San Basilio)0.26
ES0046UMalaga (Pista de fútbol)0.62
FI0010UHelsinkiSMEAR III0.170.4EBAS
FR0049UPoitiers le Nain0.88EBAS
FR0050UGonfreville l'Orcher0.48110.64
FR0051UNiortVenise verte0.92
FR0052URouenPetit Quevilly0.33110.16
FR0053URouenQuai de Paris0.32
GB0023ULondonHonor Oak Park10.89
GB0062UManchesterAir Quality Supersite0.0311
IT0029UMilanoVia Juvara0.21
IT0030UMotta Visconti0.34
IT0031USannazzaro de' Burgondi (AGIP)0.2111111111
IT0032UCremonaVia Fatebenefratelli0.871111111111
IT0033UPaviaVia Folperti0.0611111111
IT0034UBergamoVia Meucci0.87EBAS
IT0035UPiadenaVia Cavour0.4911110.57999999999999996EBAS
IT0037RCremonaVia Gerre Borghi0.221111111111
IT0038RCorte de' Cortesi con Cignone111111111111111
IT0039RLo (Bertonico)0.83111111111111


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