The National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) is an interdisciplinary public research organisation under the administrative supervision of the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. Created in 1939, it has a budget of 3.3 billion, more than 33,000 people dedicated to research and 1,144 research laboratories in France and abroad. Its scientists explore the living world, matter, the Universe, and the functioning of human societies in order to meet the major challenges of today and tomorrow.